Sweet cherry Jeannette: description, complete guide to growing
The article presents Jeannette's cherry: description, characteristics, planting, cultivation.
Sweet cherry Jeannette: variety description, features
Of course, each cherry variety has its own history, from which the main characteristics and characteristics of the plant are formed. In this article, we will dwell in more detail on such an interesting variety, which is called Jeannette. The author of the variety is S.Yu. Debiskaeva, who worked on breeding the variety at the North Caucasian Research Institute of Mountain and Foothill Gardening. It is not surprising that in this regard, the variety has several specific traits and characteristics. The variety entered the state trials in 2005, but has already managed to declare itself as a rather interesting variety that can in principle withstand some not the most favorable conditions, but in a good microclimate it will reveal itself as much as possible.
The tree has an average rate of growth and development, a crown of medium thickening, has a rounded or slightly pyramidal shape. But in general, the planting looks quite interesting and decorative, especially when the tree finally begins to bloom. The fruits are large, their weight varies from six to eight grams, they are colored in a dark red tint, the pulp is very fragrant and juicy, upon reaching consumer maturity, the seed can be easily separated from the pulp, which simplifies the processing of the crop. The fruits contain a large amount of useful trace elements and vitamins, which are ideal for the human body. It is also worth saying that in general, fruits can be stored for a long time, they can also transfer transportation over long distances. The most important thing is to comply with all care requirements. By the way, they are not that complicated, so even a beginner can cope with these requirements.
Sweet cherry Jeannette: description of fruits
The fruits have very attractive external characteristics, so that the variety is often grown not only on private land - trees can also be found in cultivation on an industrial scale. Now I would like to dwell in more detail on the description of the planting, so that the reader has a clear vision of what this variety is, what are its features. The growing season is about 70 days. The fruits are large, the weight of one berry can be about seven grams, and in shape they are more reminiscent of slightly rounded hearts. The color of both the skin and the pulp is red, the juice also turns out to be red. Taste characteristics are rated quite high, tasters emphasize the sweet taste of the berries and the density of the pulp, which allows the fruit to be stored for a long time and to be transported over long distances. Berries also retain their integrity for a long time when harvested - another advantage for those who do not yet know how to fully realize their harvest. This variety is recommended for growing in temperate climates, mainly in the southern or central parts of Russia. But there are experienced gardeners who say that they managed to grow cherries in less stable areas, and the harvest was just as good in quality.
Sweet cherry Jeannette: characteristics, fruiting
Sweet cherry requires regular and fairly abundant watering, since this plant is generally not capable of tolerating droughts for a long time - this applies to absolutely any variety and any variety. In order to get juicy and very tasty fruits attractive in their characteristics, it is recommended to carry out abundant monthly watering, focusing on the weather and climatic conditions. This will also help prevent the berries from shedding ahead of time, which means that the gardener will be able to collect the maximum harvest and realize it in accordance with his interests and needs. If precipitation is not expected, then watering should be prescribed a little more often, the soil should not dry out, but it should not become waterlogged either. Otherwise, in the event of drought and waterlogging, the root system will suffer, which means that the entire planting will be in danger of death.
Sweet cherry does not have a very high level of frost resistance, although if the tree grows in favorable conditions for itself, then in this case it will be possible to achieve excellent results, and the planting will not freeze in extreme conditions. Moreover, usually frost resistance decreases not entirely in the entire tree, but in flower buds, which are directly responsible for the future formation of the crop and its abundance. If the winter time turned out to be frosty, and if return frosts came in the spring, then this can just lead to the fact that the flower buds freeze and, therefore, the harvest will be lost (or all of it, or some significant part of it).
This variety is practically sterile, and without a pollinating plant, the cherry will not be able to bear fruit, or some fruits will be tied, but the harvest will be completely meager and completely not abundant. Pollinators for cherries can be varieties such as Rechitsa or Poetry, which have identical flowering times, which means that pollination will occur at the most suitable moment. The flowering of the variety begins in mid-May, and in the second half of July, the gardener will be able to enjoy the first harvest of juicy and very tasty fruits. But it should be borne in mind that ripening is non-simultaneous and uneven, which means that the harvest will have to be harvested not in one, but in several approaches at once within ten days.
Fruiting begins around the fourth year after the planting has been sent outdoors. At first, the harvest cannot be called abundant - on average, a gardener collects about ten kilograms of fruits from one tree, no more, but over the years, the yield increases, just as the taste of the fruit increases. As a result, when the tree reaches the peak of its growth and development, then more than twenty kilograms of cherries can be harvested from it. Of course, in many ways, fruiting, its level and quality will mainly depend on how much effort and time the gardener has spent on complying with agrotechnical requirements and caring nuances. But we'll talk about this a little later in this article.
Cherry of this variety belongs to the table variety, and also the fruits have a universal purpose, as a rule, after removing the berries, they are excellent for fresh consumption, since they have excellent taste characteristics, and the pulp contains a large amount of various vitamins and trace elements that can have a great effect on the general condition and health of the person who will eat them. If the gardener has decided to carry out a longer storage of fruits, then it is recommended to send them to freeze, and also use them for making drinks, jams, juices and wine, jams and sauces, marmalade and sweets. In each dish, cherries will perfectly reveal their taste characteristics and, most importantly, they go well with other berries and fruits, emphasizing the taste with their uniqueness.Also, cherries can be used for the preparation of liqueurs and tinctures, which have a positive effect on human health, immunity and metabolism. So cherries are really worthy of attention from gardeners precisely due to their many positive features and traits.
Protection, advantages and disadvantages, recommendations
Sweet cherry is quite resistant to moniliosis and coccomycosis - perhaps the most dangerous fungal diseases that can affect cherry and sweet cherry crops. But still, the gardener must provide additional support to the plantings so that they do not definitely get infected with dangerous infections. The same can be said about pests that periodically attack plantings - if the gardener monitors them and provides the necessary support, then the result can be an excellent planting that will grow well even in not the most favorable conditions. In general, it is possible to carry out various preventive treatments of the plantings to make it easier to regulate their general condition and to ensure that the pests do not even begin to spread over the plantings.
The variety has both its advantages and some disadvantages, which are worth mentioning. For example, if we talk about the advantages of the variety, then this is mainly an excellent level of yield (it becomes more and more abundant every year, and the quality of the fruits also improves); annual fruiting, which does not depend on external manifestations and factors; the early maturity of the variety, so that already in the middle of summer the gardener can enjoy wonderful and tasty cherry fruits from his own personal plot; delicious and very juicy fruits that have a universal purpose. In general, sweet cherries can be consumed fresh immediately after harvest, or they can be used in the form of preserves and jams, drinks, sauces, wine, juices and compotes, preparations for the winter.
But there are also disadvantages, which are also worth mentioning - first of all, it is the self-infertility of the variety. This means that before planting a tree, you should also take care of the selection of pollinating varieties that will have the same flowering time. Then the yield will be even better and more abundant. Of course, experience shows that some part of the fruit can be set without pollinators, but it will make up no more than 20 percent of the total harvest. So, nevertheless, for the sake of the future harvest, you should take care of organizing and caring for pollinators.
Sweet cherries need the gardener to comply with all the terms and rules for planting. So there are several basic conditions that must be considered if the gardener is guided not only by getting a beautiful flowering plant, but also at the same time getting an excellent tree with a very plentiful and regular harvest. Next, we will just tell you in more detail about the timing of experienced gardeners recommend planting a plant, how to select seedlings, plant them in open ground and give cherries future care. It should be borne in mind that the variety as a whole has the same requirements in agricultural technology as many other plantings, but one way or another it has its own nuances. They must be taken into account first of all. Indeed, according to them, the gardener will be able to determine whether he wants, in principle, to engage in the cultivation of this variety, whether he has enough time to take care of, and whether he will be able to harvest, process a large number of berries. Also, the cultivation of this variety involves caring for pollinating varieties, so you should always keep this aspect in mind and build on your own skills.
Fruiting of the tree begins in the fourth or fifth year after the seedling has been sent to the open ground. If the tree was grafted on low-growing rootstocks, then fruiting may occur earlier, but on strong-growing rootstocks, a more abundant harvest can be obtained.In this case, the tree will take up more space in the garden, and fruiting may begin a little later. If we talk about the volume of the harvest, then usually from an adult tree, which has reached its peak of development, you can collect up to 80 kilograms of berries. But at the same time, it should be borne in mind that such success cannot be achieved if the gardener does not comply with the norms and rules for growing plantings, agricultural technology. Next, we will just dwell on these aspects in more detail, so that it is easier for the gardener to understand what actions are required of him in the cultivation and care of cherries.
The fruits ripen in a very short time, which means that you should try to harvest the crop as soon as possible, otherwise it will crumble. Sweet cherry Jeannette also does not tolerate stagnation of moisture in the soil very well, since moisture negatively affects the root system (naturally, moisture is in very large quantities). Therefore, it is recommended to plant the variety on a hill where the groundwater will be deepened. But we will talk further about the conditions for choosing a place for landing, about the nuances of the landing itself and subsequent departure. We will also list those dangerous diseases and describe pests that can be destructive for the cherry tree, and tell you about what preventive measures must be followed for the benefits of planting and for its successful development, growth and fruiting.
Of course, you should pay serious attention to where and in what area the sweet cherry will grow. Experienced gardeners say that for planting seedlings, it is recommended to select more even and elevated areas where enough sunlight will fall. In no case should you plant cherries in low areas, as rather cold fogs can fall there, and groundwater can come too close to the root system. Due to groundwater, the root system can freeze under constant moisture. As a result, putrefactive processes and fungal formations begin, which lead to the fact that the plantings become weaker, and as a result, they generally die. It is best to plant cherries in the southern or eastern parts of the garden plot, which will be perfectly illuminated by the sun, but protected from sudden gusts of wind and drafts.
There are also certain restrictions on which crops can be planted near cherries, and which should not be planted next to a tree, since such a neighborhood can cause great harm to it. For example, it should not be planted next to cherry pears and apple trees, since these crops are able to very actively draw out all useful trace elements and substances from the soil, and cherries will simply have nowhere to receive nourishment for development and growth. Also, it is not recommended to plant conifers next to cherry lindens and birches, as they are quite aggressive with respect to the soil mixture.
Sweet cherry Jeannette is generally considered one of the most fastidious crops in this regard - she does not tolerate nightshade and tobacco crops, blackberries, raspberries and gooseberries nearby, since they can have common pests, and the requirements for the soil are always high. As a result, crops begin to simply wear out the soil, and for this reason it will require regular renewal. And given that the above plants do not respond very well to transplantation, as a result, you will have to constantly update the soil in order to prevent the death of the plantings. But if we talk about what kind of neighborhood is suitable for cherries, then we can say that these are cherries and plums, as well as honeysuckle. They wonderfully coexist with cherries, they can even take an active part in pollination, due to which more fruits will be formed and, accordingly, the volume of the harvest will increase.
How should Jeannette's cherries be planted
It is best to choose seedlings that have reached the age of two.The length of the root system should be at least 20-25 centimeters, since this length is already suitable for planting in open ground, and at the same time the plant will feel as comfortable as possible. In general, the roots should be healthy, they should not have visible mechanical or putrefactive damage, and the height of the seedlings should be about one meter, no less. In principle, you should always focus on the external characteristics of the planting material and on how the planting feels, so that the cherry will successfully take root in the future, adapt and show its full maximum growth and development. if the gardener notices any deformations or damage, then it is best for him to abandon the idea of planting this planting on his site, and opt for a healthier and stronger seedling.
Before planting a seedling in open ground, it is recommended to keep it in a solution for several hours, which consists of water and a growth stimulator - Kornevin. Then the root system will be saturated with water and it will be easier to germinate after it is in the open field.
There is a certain algorithm for planting seedlings in open ground, following which even less experienced gardeners will be able to cope with this procedure and get excellent results. Planting should start with the fact that the gardener prepares in advance a suitable site for planting seedlings. The soil is also preliminarily prepared - it should be fertile, saturated with mineral and organic substances, it should not be too acidic and heavy. In order to lower the acidity, the gardener can add either ash or lime to the soil. You can also use dolomite flour for the same purposes, which also normalizes the acidity of the soil and slightly saturates it with the necessary components to make it easier for the seedling to adapt to new conditions. The soil is fed with superphosphate, humus and sulfuric potassium. You can also add a small amount of wood ash, which also has an excellent effect on the general condition of the soil and on future planting material. In general, at the initial stage, you should be very careful about fertilizing, since after that, for two years it will be possible not to add them to the soil at all.
The pit must be prepared in advance - its size is 70x70 centimeters. The depth should also be at least half a meter, but in general, the size of the pit should be guided by the size of the planting materials, because the seedling needs to feel comfortable in the pit, there should not be a small or very cramped space. In the very center of the pit, it is worth filling a little fertile soil, into which sulfur potassium and superphosphate are added in advance, which have an excellent effect on the immunity of the planting material and allow it to take root as soon as possible. A small mound is formed on which the seedling itself is located. It is recommended that not one, but two gardeners take part in planting, so that one holds the seedling from above, while the second will straighten the root system and gradually pour soil onto it so that no air pockets form. The roots should be carefully and neatly straightened, they should not intertwine with each other, because this can negatively affect the general state of the planting, its health, longevity, increased growth and development. the pit is filled with water (it must be settled beforehand, at room temperature). In no case should you use running cold water, as it can cause a shock reaction from the seedling.
The root collar is gradually closed, leaving it at the level of the soil, slightly open. The soil should be slightly compacted, as air pockets should not be allowed to form - pathogenic bacteria can begin to develop in them.Around the seedling, it is worth pouring a mulching layer, which consists of peat or dry grass. Mulch performs several main functions: thanks to it, the trunk circle will be protected from attacks from pests, moisture will evaporate more slowly, and all the necessary heat will leave the soil even more slowly. So it's not worth saving your time on filling mulch. Thanks to it, weeds or third-party grasses will also not grow, which means that the trunk space will be clean and tidy.
If this is not a single, but a group planting of cherry trees, then the distance between them should be at least three meters, and about four meters should be left between the rows. Then the cherries will not interfere with each other to grow and develop correctly, they will not shade each other, and it will be much easier for the gardener himself to take care of the plantings, since he will have a place to take care of and to harvest. In order to get the maximum yield from a cherry tree, pollinators should be planted nearby. Pollination will occur due to gusts of wind and pollinating insects. In this case, the gardener will have more responsibilities for caring for the plantings, but the harvest will not be long in coming. Pollinator caring is usually an identical agricultural procedure, so that the gardener as a whole may not worry too much and combine caring activities.
Of course, after planting, it is worth observing the follow-up care, because the well-being of the planting, its normal development and indicators of growth, fruiting and vital activity in general, will largely depend on it. Sweet cherry Jeannette needs a gardener to provide her with enough moisture. Especially during flowering. Also, agricultural technology includes fertilizing, pruning the crown, digging the soil. Cherry can itself let the gardener understand that it needs additional watering and caring activities - for example, the soil around will actively dry out and crack, which just indicates that watering should be carried out in the very near future. But it is better not to bring it to this, since due to the drying out of the soil, the entire planting will suffer, and some shortcomings will begin that are directly related to fruiting.
Sweet cherry Jeannette: care, feeding, pruning, wintering
When a sweet cherry is just planted in open ground, it needs nitrogen-containing components and additional fertilizing, since nitrogen takes a direct and active part in the growth and development of the shoot part of the plant. For this, urea is added to the soil. If the tree is already mature, then complex mineral fertilizers and fertilizers with a large amount of microelements can be applied. Mineral dressing should be combined with organic matter, and the main characters here are humus or compost, which the gardener can harvest on his own. Also, a small amount of ash must be added to the soil, since it contains potassium. And even earlier, we pointed out that thanks to ash, it is possible to regulate the acidity level, which means that planting will feel comfortable in soil with not the highest manifestation of an acidic background. This is a recommendation in agricultural technology of absolutely any cherry variety, which must be followed in order to obtain an excellent and abundant, high-quality and regular harvest.
There is one more piece of advice from experienced gardeners. It consists in the fact that the crown must be formed without fail. This is necessary not only to maintain the health of the planting, but also to give it a neat and decorative appearance. Another advantage of sweet cherry is that it reacts absolutely normally to formation, and that it can recover on its own after this procedure.
Pruning is another necessary condition and activity in the framework of agricultural technology and planting care.After the winter period ends, the gardener is obliged to remove all branches that are frozen or damaged, weakened after such a harsh period - this type of pruning is called sanitary. After it is completed, the cut sites are processed with copper sulfate, and then smeared with garden varnish so that infection does not get into these vulnerable areas and infections do not begin.
For the winter, planting can, in principle, not be covered, as cherries calmly endure this period. But the trunk is best protected, first of all from pests and rodents, which are not at all opposed to eating bark. Young seedlings are also covered for the winter. Around November, it is worth mulching the roots to protect them from pests and from severe soil freezing. The trunk is covered with materials such as lutrasil, sponband, or you can simply use spruce branches that will allow enough oxygen to pass through, and at the same time can also reliably protect young seedlings from adverse manifestations from the outside.