Pruning pears in autumn
Exclusively due to pruning, it turns out to find the right balance of trace elements and nutrients that go to the growth and development of the herbaceous plant, as well as to the fruiting process. In this article, we will consider pruning a pear for people who have no experience in gardening, and also we will analyze at what time it is necessary to perform this procedure.
Pear pruning - what is the best time?
It is allowed to start pruning of this fruiting crop at the beginning of the spring season, on especially hot days of the summer season, in the autumn season and, surprisingly, in the winter season. Pruning a pear, regardless of the season, has its own nuances.
- Agricultural technology in the summer season
Pruning pears in the summer season is rarely done for good reasons. For example, in the spring season, a summer resident hurries up pruning a fruit-bearing crop, he makes some oversights, and as a result, a couple of branches that need to be removed continue to grow on a pear.
After some time, these branches begin to grow intensively, which will negatively affect other branches, since the large branches will create shade and block access to the sun for the branches that bear fruit. In these cases, pruning is allowed in the summer season.
It must be remembered in the process of pruning in the summer season that in this season the active movement of the juice is meant, which means that it will be able to stand out from the wounds. To prevent this, it is necessary to thoroughly cover the sections of the sections with a specialized tool.
In the summer season, it is advised to pinch young shoots, because only at the moment the shoots did not have time to woody, and removing them will not cause any difficulties.
Due to pruning in the summer season, leaf buds can transform into fruit buds, which will have a positive effect on the tree.
- Is it possible to prune branches during the winter season?
Pear pruning is done, surprisingly, even during the winter season. Pruning done in winter has some advantages: the fruiting crop is dormant and does not feel any discomfort from the wounds inflicted on it, the healing of wounds is quite accelerated, the juice does not move in the branches, and this makes the branches rather flexible. Pruning in the winter season is most often done in the last month of winter, when the temperature is less than fifteen degrees.
- Pruning in the spring season
If there is a desire to prune a fruiting crop in the spring season, it is necessary to start performing this action after the snow thaws, then an abundant movement of juice begins. Branches frozen in the winter season are initially removed.
When pruning in the spring season, it is important to shape the crown.
- Pruning in the fall season
Autumn pruning begins in the second month of autumn, as fallen leaves are no longer a hindrance. During this procedure, you must carefully work with the crown.
Pear pruning - what for?
A fruiting tree like a pear reacts identically to pruning at any time of the year, since one growing process has already ended, and the next has not yet begun.
But still, there are nuances everywhere, you need to know them if you are gardening. Most summer residents prefer pruning in the autumn season, due to the absence of snow storms and spring slush.It is worth noting that there is no need to work in subzero temperatures.
A serious disadvantage of pruning in the autumn season is a decrease in the level of pear resistance to low temperatures. Because of this, varieties with a low level of resistance to cold in the autumn season are not pruned, summer residents carry out this procedure in the spring. Pruning in the fall is an excellent option for an older, fruitful crop. The procedure is carried out in the first autumn month or a little later, when the leaf fall ends.
Correct pruning of fruiting crops allows you to achieve the following goals:
- excellent harvest amount.
- regular harvest offering.
- further development of the tree.
- the formation of a powerful trunk.
- comfortable harvesting.
- it is convenient to spray.
When pruning, the crown is shaped so that a couple of whole fruit branches remain on all skeletal branches.
If you neglect the pruning procedure or do it not according to plan, then the crown of a fruit-bearing tree will become denser, and energy will go to the formation of a young growth. The shoots will grow well, increase, and the amount of the crop and its dimensions will become smaller.
Correctly done pruning slows down the growth of a fruiting crop a little; because of this, the pear will not create a large shadow on nearby plants.
Pear pruning: time
When mentioning the timing of pruning in the autumn season, it is impossible to say when exactly to perform this procedure for everyone. It happens that in the same region the weather is different, it may differ from last year. And this is very important in our business.
In all territories, choosing the time for pruning a fruit-bearing crop in the autumn season, it is necessary to start getting fruits, wait for the end of the leaf fall, and then start pruning.
Note! To perform the procedure, it is necessary to select a day without precipitation in the second autumn month, it is recommended to do this twenty-one days before the onset of cold weather.
Next, we will talk about the approximate time of pruning in the autumn season of fruitful crops inherent in various parts of our country and neighboring countries.
- The southern part of our country.
Here, autumn is most often quite protracted, the cold comes later than in other regions. Pruning is possible in October, the main thing is that the temperature indicator is not below zero.
- The middle strip of our country (and the Moscow region).
The pruning procedure in these territories is recommended to be carried out from the second week of the first autumn month to the first week of the second autumn month. At that moment, the pears no longer have foliage, the movement of the juice slows down, which is considered a good time for pruning.
- Siberia and the Urals.
These territories are characterized by an early arrival of cold weather and a strong winter season. If there is a desire to carry out pruning in the autumn season, it is not recommended to postpone this matter until later. The optimal time is considered to be the time from the first week of the first autumn month to its end.
- Leningrad region.
The territory is quite northern, autumn colds should be expected a little earlier. The time for the procedure must be set from the second week of the first autumn month to the second week of the second autumn month.
In the southern parts of Ukraine, pruning should be scheduled for the second autumn month, and in the northern parts of the country, it is worth planning for the last week of the first autumn month, and the procedures should be completed by the second week of the second autumn month.
Due to the location of this country, pruning times differ from Ukraine by only a week, namely six days earlier. It is recommended to carry out this procedure in the first two weeks of the second autumn month.
With the right timing of pruning, a fruiting crop will survive the process without problems, and next year it will reward you with a vegetative process and tasty fruits.
- What time is it necessary to prune a pear according to the lunar calendar?
With the arrival of the autumn season, another season of herbaceous troubles comes for plant breeders. Next, we will focus on carrying out pruning according to the lunar calendar.
The cycles of the moon have an impact on all living organisms, as well as plants. Sap flow in herbaceous is more abundant with the setting moon, with the exception of the signs of the zodiac: cancer, fish, aquarius.
Following the lunar calendar, the following days will be positive for pruning a fruit-bearing crop in the autumn season:
- September: 1, 5, 8, 14, 13, 25, 26, 27.
- October: 2, 6, 7, 9, 14, 23, 24, 30, 31.
- November: 5, 6, 7, 11, 13, 24, 25, 29.
Adverse pruning days that alter the lunar cycle, such as a new moon or a full moon. Also, it is not advised to make pruning at the time of the moon's rise.
With this phase of the satellite, the sap flow goes up, the cuts will be extremely painful for the fruiting culture.
The following days are considered negatively influencing trimming days according to the lunar calendar:
September: 3, 9, 24.
October: 1, 8, 25.
November: 2, 3, 15.
Types of pear pruning
When pruning a fruiting crop in the autumn season, a variety of pruning is used, designed to correctly shape the crown. Below are the existing forms of trimming:
When growing vertically, branches should be pruned, and annual branches should also be shortened. Due to this method, horizontal branching comes into play, and the upper branches slow down their growth. The amount of harvest is slightly reduced, but the size and taste of the fruit increases.
With this method, the branches are completely pruned, it is important to cut them off at the very trunk or the mother shoot. The action helps to increase the amount of lighting in the center of the crown. Because of it, branches grow better, the amount of foliage, fruits increases, immunity returns to normal. There is also a balance of nutrients, which has a positive effect on the appearance of fruit shoots.
The method is initially used to recreate the crown of the required shape and to provide nutrients for the growth of fruiting shoots. It is customary to carry out shaping from the day the seedling is planted and this method lasts for five years. Summer residents try to remove fewer shoots before the fruit bearing process.
This pruning is carried out exclusively on pears that have entered the process of harvesting. The task includes the correct distribution of nutrients throughout the fruitful crop.
Pear pruning is intended to increase the life of the fruiting tree and the timing of the harvest. After pruning, new branches begin to grow abundantly, the quantity and taste of the fruit increase. The method is used for fruiting crops at the age of thirty.
The methods listed above are used quite often, but besides these methods, others are known:
- change of direction to change the direction in which the branch grows.
- tie up shoots.
- pressing the shoots.
All of the above methods affect the shape of the crown.
Pruning pears: instructions
Pruning of a fruiting crop must be done in stages in a specific order, but initially it is worth preparing the necessary equipment.
What tools should be used to carry out this procedure?
Listed below are the equipment you need to trim:
- knot knife.
- gardening scissors.
- garden var.
- paint on drying oil.
Immediately before the procedure, it is necessary to disinfect all instruments in order not to transfer fungal spores to healthy plants. When carrying out the procedure, it is necessary to try to make the sections evenly and not to allow the rupture and increase of the fibers.
It is necessary to start forming the crown of the seedling from the moment of its planting. Select the starting bud on the trunk, which is usually considered the starting point. The other three buds are removed, for the further growth of the shoot at the desired angle.
Do not touch the fifth bud on the back of the trunk to grow more branches. Then the buds from the sixth and to the eighth are pruned, the one-year shoot is pruned above the ninth bud.
In a fruiting crop that has reached the age of two years, the guide in the center should be located above the other branches, about twenty centimeters. This is necessary for the further design of the correct skeleton, and with the branches it is possible to carry out the following actions:
- fold back.
Fruiting trees that have reached the age of four to five years, the central trunk is pruned to the upper skeletal shoot. Then the crown is kept in this form, avoiding thickening. With branches it is possible to carry out the following actions:
- cut out growing in the center of the tree.
- cut out overgrown at a sharp angle.
- cut out growing parallel to the trunk.
- cut branches that do not bring crops.
Young branches should be cut to one third of the entire length, do not touch the fruit buds.
- Specificity of formation
To carry out the procedure for pruning a fruiting crop in the autumn season, it is necessary to remember about the pitfalls. The point is:
- with a large garden area, pruning is recommended in a couple of stages and at different times of the year.
- most of the summer residents do not use a pruner when pruning, but use a different method - the shoot is tightened with a thin wire, after a while it cuts off the shoot.
- using the pruning shears, turn the blade towards the appendix.
- accelerated wound healing is endowed with cutting on the ring, without leaving stumps and pits.
- the shoot is cut from below, then cut from above to prevent damage to the bark.
- large shoots must be removed in parts.
- use garden var for wounds or paint over them.
- do not apply fertilizer after thinning, because the nutrients are normal.
Overdoing it with pruning in a single procedure will ruin the pear. Due to the perceived stress, the tree will weaken very much.
- Varieties of formation
Pruning a fruit-bearing crop, namely a pear, is quite similar to pruning an apple tree. Many varieties of crown formation are known. The main varieties are listed below:
- in the form of a pyramid.
- in the form of a tier.
- in the form of a sparse tier.
- in the form of a spindle.
- in the form of a bowl.
The shape of the tier has become very famous. The form of a thin layer is used on a fruiting crop with a chain type of fruit offering.
Existing pruning techniques
Pruning pears in the fall season is fairly straightforward. In the autumn season, the sap flow of pears does not stop, only slightly slows down. The wounds formed in the process of pruning will heal for a long time, it is necessary to saturate the tree with reserves for the winter season.
As a result of pruning in the fall, you must have the following steps:
- remove dead branches and infected ones.
- remove branches growing at an angle of ninety degrees.
- pruning branches that grow incorrectly. Remove branches that could damage the tree in the future. Reduce other branches.
- when cutting down branches completely, it is not advised to leave stumps. Cut them at the root to quickly heal the wound.
- burn the removed branches.
Does pruning differ between varieties?
All the methods and adaptations that were mentioned earlier in this article are ideal for pears growing on vigorous rootstocks. But there are other varieties that deserve attention.
Advantages and disadvantages of "Columnar Pear"
Why is “Column-shaped pear” so fond of? The following are the benefits according to experienced summer residents:
- large amount of harvest.
- the possibility of group landings.
- excellent survival rate.
- large fruits.
- differs in resistance to common diseases.
- good level of cold resistance.
The disadvantages include:
- the shape and dimensions of the pear itself imply constant pruning.
- the fruit-bearing time is only ten years.
Shaping the crown of the "Pear columnar"
Over the past thirty years, summer residents have begun to grow more and more "Column-shaped pears". Pruning such pears differs from pruning pears on tall rootstocks.
In the first twelve months immediately after planting, you should not allow the flowering process of a fruiting tree to gain energy with a seedling.
At the twenty-fourth month, it is necessary to observe so as not to overstrain the young tree with a harvest, from the mass of which it can break. With this task, only two flowers are not touched in all inflorescences.
When pruning a pear, they look at the first bud all the time. With an intact appearance, the summer resident was convinced of the presence of a central conductor. If there is damage, the center conductor should be made by yourself. Other branches should be removed.
Quite often, "Columnar pear" is not cut off, because with all the options, abundant growth of young branches will be provoked. For a tree that has reached two to four years, it is necessary to prune the branches, but not entirely, all the time, without touching the segment with two buds.
Pruning is carried out in the fall. The main task is to remove all branches on the sides, growing on different sides. The central conductor is cut only in case of poor development. As a result, two kidneys remain.
Pruning "Dwarf pears"
About three decades ago, "Dwarf Pears" won the hearts of people:
- a large amount of harvest.
- small dimensions.
- comfortable agricultural technology.
Crown formation in this species is a simple and interesting process. Pruning a tree in the autumn season is done in the following way:
- in the year of planting the seedling, it is necessary to cut the central branch at rest, by about fifty centimeters.
- because of this, it turns out to have four to five powerful shoots on the sides, and the most powerful of the branches grows upwards. Then, when pruning the center conductor, reduce it by twenty centimeters, and the shoots growing on the sides are reduced by a third.
Around the fourth year, a tree with a growth of two hundred centimeters, with a voluminous crown and abundant branch formation.
Pruning by tree age
According to the rate of growth and development of pears, the methods of pruning it change. This is due to the purpose of pruning the young seedling and the age of the pear.
In the first years of a pear's life, it is necessary to correctly form the skeleton and the correct shape of the crown, pruning the pear at an age, try to find a balance between the growth of young branches and the presence of a large amount of harvest.
- Pruning young fruiting crops
Pruning pears in the autumn season is necessary for young trees, so that as a result, all pear shoots can be well illuminated by the rays of the sun and let the wind through. Because of this, these shoots are removed:
- interfering with each other.
Correct pruning of a pear in the fall season means removing the branch above the bud, leaving no stumps that can be a carrier of diseases.
The media should be slightly angled.
- Pruning a mature, fruiting tree
When pruning a mature tree, you should consider providing plenty of fruit. Because of this, it is impossible to remove the regrown short branches, because inflorescences are formed on them and new fruits are formed.
When pruning both a young tree and an adult pear, the same crown-forming methods are used:
Following this method, the branches at the bottom will not be able to grow larger than the branches at the top. There should be no such difference, the upper branches are pruned slightly more than the lower branches.
By thinning, you allow sunlight and air into the crown. As a result, remove dried, infected, growing in the center and unproductive branches.
When pruning, the branches are reduced by one third. It is necessary to take into account the direction of growth of the bud, which grows at the cut. Pruning is done in a zigzag fashion, without touching this year the bud on the branch growing to the left, and a year later growing to the right.
This procedure promotes the regrowth of shoots from the side, and the upper branches will begin to grow acceleration.
Immediately after pruning a branch, from several buds located at the top, elongated branches grow. This means that tree pruning in the autumn season is carried out, leaving the first bud on a branch of the next year and a couple of buds located below, from which skeletal shoots of the first order will grow.
Care after pruning
Fruiting trees immediately after pruning in the autumn season do not need complicated agricultural techniques. However, a couple of procedures are worth doing:
- after waiting one hundred and twenty minutes immediately after the end of pruning, the sections must be processed with garden varnish. If you try to do this right away, the putty will not harden due to the wet sections.
It is necessary to thoroughly lubricate the slices made by the ring method on skeletal-type shoots.
Shoots with a diameter of no more than three centimeters do not need to be lubricated. They regenerate themselves.
As you could understand, in order to get a large amount of harvest, you need extremely correct agricultural technology for a fruiting crop. It is also worthwhile to correctly prune a fruit-bearing tree in the autumn season. Follow the rules given in our article and you will succeed.