Delphinium transplant, description, cultivation, protection
The article describes the transplant of a delphinium, its description, all the features of cultivation, a guide to protection.
Delphinium belongs to the representatives of the buttercup family and is characterized as a whole genus of herbaceous annuals and perennials. Today there are about 450 varieties of this beautiful flower. In the people, this plant is most often called spur, or larkspur. This plant is considered quite capricious and demanding, it is quite difficult to grow it, and this flower does not tolerate transplants. But do not get scared quickly, caring for this plant is scary only from the outside. In this article, we will consider all the methods of reproduction of this gorgeous flower and the features of caring for it, as well as all the subtleties associated with plant transplantation.
Delphinium transplant, description
Among all varieties of this plant, there are annual, biennial and perennial flowers. This herbaceous ornamental plant has a straight root system and small racemose roots. The main roots can go down vertically or horizontally. The leaves of these plants are three, five, seven-part, and also with narrow lobes.
Flowers of different subspecies differ from each other in their size, have a diameter, depending on the variety, from 3 to 7 centimeters. Inflorescences consist of flowers that are gathered together in a paniculate or racemose shape. Among the varieties of this plant, there are flowers with a double structure, as well as non-double ones, which have five petals, among which one has a spur. There are four nectaries inside such a flower. And the color scale of these flowers is very diverse. There are slight differences in the ebb and flow of green and burgundy foliage.
The flowers of this plant are endowed with a rather interesting and unusual shape, which in the buds outwardly resemble the heads of dolphins, which is why this plant received this name. Although there is another version of the origin of this name. Some of the scientists claim that this name comes from the ancient Greek city of Delphi, where this flower was first discovered. There are also a large number of legends associated with this flower, but let historians deal with them.
Delphinium transplant, features of cultivation and care
This plant is very good at watering procedures and is negatively prone to drought. The soil where this plant grows should not dry out in any case. Although it is imperative to protect the horse neck of the flower from decay with excessive moisture. Therefore, the soil on which this flower is grown must be sufficiently drained. A very serious danger for this asthenia is a thaw, after a rather snowy winter period, then when excess melt water can completely destroy the rhizome, respectively, and the whole plant dies. That is why you should very carefully select a site for growing this plant. The place should be located in such a way that with the arrival of spring the soil can dry out rather quickly and does not form stagnant moisture.
Given that this plant has a rather negative attitude towards transplants, the site for its cultivation is selected very carefully, the necessary soil for growth is prepared in advance. Moreover, the growing area must have sufficient illumination, but with light partial shade, and must also be well closed from drafts. This plant is very fond of the sun's heat, and does not relate well to the wind, but, despite this, it definitely needs a little shade, at least a few hours a day. Otherwise, the delphinium may burn out if it is exposed to direct sunlight for a long time.
- Temperature conditions.
This plant is quite demanding on heat, although it can easily tolerate cold, winter with a temperature of -40 degrees is not a hindrance for it. In the summer, however, this flower prefers dry and rather hot weather conditions.
- Top dressing.
In the spring, this culture has a very fast growth, it can grow in one day from five centimeters and above, but this fact, in turn, requires abundant feeding. These plants require a feeding procedure per season in an amount of at least three times. The first top dressing is applied in the spring, when the culture begins to wake up. To do this, make a mixture of 70 grams of superphosphate, 15 grams of nitrate, 30 grams of ammonium sulfate, 30 grams of potassium chloride. This mixture is mixed well enough and poured near the plantings of this plant, after which it is dug up a little, thereby deepening this fertilizer into the soil by approximately 6 centimeters. For the second time, feed is introduced during the period when the budding period begins. To do this, prepare a mixture of 60 grams of superphosphate and 40 grams of potassium. This mixture is poured under each plant. The third feeding is carried out at the end of the summer season, with the same composition as in the spring. Only apply fertilizers carefully, as an excess of fertilizers with a nitrogen content can cause a suspension in the development of the plant, or to its deformity. It would be good to use in this case complex mineral fertilizers, or Kemir.
- Special conditions of care.
Two-year-old delphiniums are quite dense and grow strongly. That is why they need to be thinned out in order to give out numerous and lush flowering afterwards. During this procedure, branches should be removed from the main part of the bush, this is necessary so that the air can freely penetrate into the bush, and also so that there is good ventilation. The leaves and branches that are weakened and damaged are also removed from the plant, only up to 5 of the strongest stems and leaves remain on the bushes.
Another prerequisite for caring for this plant is its garter to any small support, this is done when the bush is already growing up. This is done due to the fact that the stems of this plant often gain a height of more than half a meter, and strong winds can break fragile branches. The thread for the garter is used wide, light and soft, so that during the winds it cannot accidentally cut the stem.
The stems on which there are faded flowers look very ugly, so they are all removed, unless, of course, you need seeds. It is worth considering the fact that this plant has hollow stems, and, accordingly, after you cut this peduncle, a hollow and open tube will remain in its place, into which liquid can collect, for example, during rain. This fact can lead to sad consequences, such as rotting of the roots. In order to avoid this, the stems remaining after such a pruning should be completely cut off, or cracked down to the root.
- Requirements for the soil.
This plant prefers to grow in a place where weakly acidic soil predominates, and a very good option would be to be in neutral soil.Another prerequisite is considered to be good fertility and a drainage layer. The best option would be loose loam, in which compost is mixed with peat before planting. If you have an acidic soil environment on your site, then you can use slaked lime. To do this, in the amount of 150 grams, approximately, they are covered by one square meter, in the autumn period, while adding about 7 kilograms of manure and peat, after that the place is dug up and it remains to winter. You can also add planting dolomite flour into the hole. At the onset of the spring period, it is again recommended to loosen the soil and apply top dressing. After that, you can start planting this plant in the prepared area. To do this, you need to prepare a landing hole with an approximate depth of 50 centimeters. The dug soil is mixed half with peat and poured into the hole, but not everything, but what will fit in the hole. Next, the hole is left alone for several days, to settle the soil, and then the delphinium is planted, adding a small amount of fine sand to this hole.
- How to plant densely?
Delphinium is a fairly large crop, which has its own growth and development quite strongly and rapidly, which is why a very dense planting should be avoided so that the plants do not interfere with each other and their ventilation is preserved. Therefore, the following conclusion follows: it is necessary to plant the bushes of this plant at a distance of arcs from each other from one meter or more. Other flowers, depending on their size and growth, can be planted closer to the delphinium. In addition, it is necessary to take into account the fact that a very planted flowerbed has an external appearance that is not entirely aesthetic.
How and when to transplant a delphinium for reproduction
When to transplant delphinium
- Separation of bushes.
A delphinium transplant using the bush separation method is suitable for the reproduction of perennial plants that are over three years old. To do this, in the spring, when the bushes reach 15 centimeters of their growth, approximately, they are dug up and divided into separate parts, and in such a way that each part has at least 2 shoots. Crushed coal is required to be poured onto the cuts. The soil is removed from the roots, and damaged branches and roots are removed. New cuttings are planted in separate containers with soil, consisting of earth, fine sand and humus. For about two weeks after that, they are kept in a sufficiently warm and lighted place, and after that they are planted in an open area, in a flower garden. If, before the moment you start planting young plants in the flowerbed, shoots have formed in it, then they should be cut off.
In this way, a perennial delphinium is transplanted for the purpose of reproduction. This happens in the spring, and for this, plants are taken that have grown to a height of at least 15 centimeters. The healthiest and strongest shoots are cut in such a way as to capture a small number of roots. Cut shoots are immediately planted in the soil and constantly watered and sprayed until the stem takes root. It should be borne in mind the important fact that this propagation method is only suitable for perennial plants. For annuals and biennials, the seed propagation method is used, plus they should not be transplanted to everything.
Delphinium transplant: timing, features
These perennial plants occasionally require transplantation to another place of growth, because the land becomes much poorer after this plant, and in this case even feeding does not help. Delphiniums can grow in one place for ten years, but they are often transplanted every four years. Since with a long stay in the same place, the delphinium begins to wither, and the flowers become smaller in size.
The best option would be to transplant these plants at the beginning of the growing season, this is approximately the end of April or the first days of May. Or you can do this in late August or early September, when the flowers have already bloomed. For transplanting in the autumn, you should know exactly when the first cold weather will come, so as not to miss the moment of transplantation, otherwise the plant may not have time to adapt and take root, and, therefore, freeze in the winter season and not rise in the spring. When transplanting adult plants in the autumn, they should also be protected from the cold.
Landing holes are dug half a meter deep and about 40 centimeters in diameter. Prepared soil is poured into the hole. We described the rules for preparing a site for planting a plant above. In the spring, when the stems grow by about 15-20 centimeters in height, it is required to fertilize with complex mineral fertilizers. Often, adult plants that have reached the age of five years and above are fed and planted in a separate container before dividing and transplanting.
Preparing for the winter season
Matured plants that have survived the winter period further can survive the cold quite well. With regards to young plants, especially those transplanted in autumn, they require good frost protection. Therefore, they are insulated with needles, a good layer of fallen leaves, agrofibre, or an ordinary film that should be dug in so that the wind cannot carry it away. In this case, there should be at least 30 centimeters above the soil surface from the stems. And very young and small plants are covered with loose earth. It should be borne in mind that these perennial plants can die if in winter there is a frequent alternation of cold weather and thaw with an excess of moisture. Often, flower growers simply transplant them into separate containers and put them in the basement. But this does not diminish the likelihood of plant death.
Diseases and pests
Consider the most dangerous and common ailments that this plant faces:
- Diseases mosaic and spotting. They manifest themselves as the formation of spots of a brown and yellow hue, after which the foliage dries up and falls off, respectively. The plant itself stops growing and develops, and has a diseased appearance. The best option would be to completely remove and burn such plants, as these diseases cannot be treated.
- Black spot disease. Most often it is formed during the period of prolonged rains, or from an excess of moisture from irrigation procedures. To avoid this trouble, you should carefully control the watering of the plant, and also be sure to remove the sleeping leaves in the autumn.
- Powdery mildew. The most common and dangerous enemy of this plant. To avoid the appearance of this disease, it is required to regularly thin out the delphinium, timely remove damaged and defective leaves, and carry out correct and sufficient watering. If the flower has already been defeated by this disease, then it should be treated by spraying with a solution of cow dung, or dissolved gray. They also use chemicals that can be purchased in a wide variety at any specialized gardening store.
- Rot of the root collar. The source is a fungus, which most often can infect not only the root system, but the entire plant as a whole, in the presence of a high level of humidity and poor ventilation of the plant. In this case, it is quite easy to cope with the trouble. A perennial plant is transplanted to another place of growth, or the soil layer above the roots is changed.
- A fly that adores this plant even has its own name, as a delphinium fly, since it sits only on this plant. It can damage inflorescences and flowers. To combat such harmful insects, spraying with special agents is used.
- Aphids.Another very dangerous and harmful small insect. It feeds on the sap of the plant, after which the foliage of the delphinium dries up and the plant withers. To combat it, a decoction of tobacco dust is used, or a solution of ammonia is also used, as well as special chemicals.
- Slugs. Also frequent guests of this plant, which can pretty much harm the delphinium. They are most often dealt with with quicklime or superphosphate. Still, as a good option, you can overlay this plant with cabbage leaves.
These beautiful plants are often used as backgrounds in flower gardens. Lilies and phlox are good neighbors for them, they also feel good in the neighborhood with dahlias and roses. One has only to plant all these plants correctly so that they cannot interfere with the growth and development of each other, and also do not shade other plants. Of course, you can plant other flowers with these plants. You just need to take into account the fact that it is better to plant flowers similar to this plant for the care, requirements for the soil, in order to avoid the appearance of various unpleasant diseases.