Columnar apple tree Arbat
Apple tree Arbat is, perhaps, one of the very first, which was obtained as a result of the selection work of gardeners. The advantage of this type of apple trees is that they are very compact, do not occupy too large a plot, and also give a very plentiful and quite tasty harvest. The growth of the Arbat apple tree is carried out not in breadth, but upward, in height, due to which there is no growth of lateral shoots, which are usually observed in classic apple varieties. Also, in general, about six apple seedlings can be planted close to each other, so they are quite compact, do not take up much space, do not shade each other and take root very well next to each other.
In this article, we will focus on describing the characteristics of the Arbat apple tree, and also turn to the features of agricultural technology and tree care. This is necessary so that it is easier for the gardener to understand what type of apple trees he will be dealing with, and what conditions should be prepared for in order to get a healthy ornamental tree, which will also give an excellent and rather tasty harvest.
Apple tree Arbat: variety description
The Arbat variety of columnar apple differs in that the crop appears already in the first year after planting the seedling in open ground, and we have already mentioned this several times in this article. When a tree reaches the age of five years, up to twenty kilograms of apples can be harvested from one tree. Harvesting of Arbat apples begins either at the very end of August, or already at the beginning of September, while the fruits are stored for a very short time - only until the end of December. Then they begin to deteriorate, lose their taste properties, vitamin useful characteristics. The appearance of the fruits themselves also deteriorates. In general, if you harvest a crop, you can give it time to rest for a very short time. So they improve their consumer qualities, reach full consumer maturity, after which they really become much tastier and more nutritious.
Do not overdo them too much, otherwise then such a crop will be unsuitable even for further processing. The weight of one Arbat apple is from 100 to 120 grams, which makes the fruit medium in size.
Apples Arbat: photo of the variety
The shape of Arbat apples is round, sometimes they can be slightly elongated, on the cut at the pulp there is a delicate light creamy shade. The apple peel has a rich cherry hue and a characteristic apple aroma. Apples can shine, there is no wax coating on them. At the same time, the fruits are very juicy and sweet, with a pronounced sourness. But even the acidity does not spoil the overall impression of these fruits at all, therefore the columnar apple of the Arbat variety remains one of the leaders in the ranking of popular apple crops.
It is also popular because it is distinguished by high immunity, stress resistance and incredible frost resistance. But nevertheless, experienced gardeners recommend covering trees for winter in order to additionally protect them from severe frosts and temperature changes, since sometimes this is simply necessary, especially if the climatic conditions are completely unstable. The top of the tree can be exposed to freezing, and in this case several more vertical shoots can move away from it. This is best avoided, and it is recommended to remove these shoots immediately, otherwise they can then negatively affect the fruiting and yield level of the apple tree.
It is also recommended to take care of planting by the onset of winter and tie the tree to a support. From above it is better to cover it with straw, spruce branches or ordinary hay. Particular attention should be paid to the root circle, then the tree will really be in full readiness for further growth and, of course, for fruiting.
How to deal with pests of the Arbat apple tree
In order for the Arbat columnar apple tree to develop correctly and safely, pests should be destroyed as soon as they were noticed. To do this, carefully examine the root circle, take care of it, and also feed the apple tree. In the spring, it is recommended to prune shoots, and also spray the trunk itself for preventive purposes, to increase immunity and stress resistance. Before the buds begin to swell and bloom, the trees should also be sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux liquid. In order to remove parasites that hibernate in the tree and on its trunk, it is worth taking either iron vitriol or copper sulfate. Liquids are diluted in accordance with the instructions for use, as well as in accordance with the concentrations that are required for the apple tree at a given age, at a particular stage of its development.
Apple tree Arbat: variety reviews
In social networks, within the framework of professional forums for gardeners, there are quite positive reviews about this variety. Gardeners note that the trees have a very attractive and compact appearance, and at the same time they give a large number of tasty fruits. The trunk of the Arbat apple trees is strong and stable. Their immunity and resistance to stress are also at their best.
Planting and caring for the Arbat apple tree
Apple tree Arbat: photo of the variety
In order for the Arbat apple tree to give a decent and very tasty, bountiful harvest, it is necessary to organize proper care for it. All work should be started in early spring, when top dressing is applied (nitrogen-containing fertilizers and mineral mixtures), and some shoots are cut off before sap flow begins. Also at this time it is worthwhile to carry out additional preventive treatment against pests, since even despite the high immunity of this tree, you should not forget that it needs protection and support from the gardener himself. The near-trunk circle, or rather the soil around the trunk, should be loosened and watered abundantly. For irrigation, use warm and settled water.
With the onset of summer, Arbat apples must be thinned out in order to get the same abundant, but also large, tasty harvest. Thinning the crop in order to remove some extra, not very fresh and viable branches, and so that the tree is oriented toward giving its vitality and energy towards the future real harvest. Also, the gardener should carefully monitor the general condition of the tree, when the first signs of disease appear, preventive treatments should be immediately carried out and a very strong fight against diseases should be carried out. If suddenly a columnar apple tree of the Arbat variety gets sick, this can lead not only to a loss of harvest, but also to the fact that the tree itself will simply die as a result.
Autumn care involves harvesting, tree feeding, and sanitary pruning. Sanitary pruning involves pruning dry, wilted branches, damaged branches that will no longer be able to fully bear fruit. Also, in general, in the fall, you need to be puzzled with how to successfully and effectively prepare the tree for wintering.
Experienced gardeners recommend planting Arbat apple seedlings in early spring, before the buds swell and begin to bloom. You can also plant a columnar apple of the Arbat variety in September, when the buds have already been fully formed. So, in order to still get an early harvest from a tree, it is best to choose an early spring planting. This is done immediately after the last snow melts.Then you can guarantee that the first planting will be very successful, and the care will not be as complicated as it might seem at first glance, given the varietal characteristics of the apple trees. When a grower places an apple tree outdoors, he should pay particular attention to the root system. In general, it is best to place the measles in a growth promoter before planting, and then trim them a little, leaving about three centimeter outgrowths.
Apple tree Arbat: photo of the variety
The gardener chooses the planting scheme for the Arbat apple tree on his own, depending on what his site is, what is its shape and, of course, size. For example, you can plant a columnar Arbat apple tree in compacted rows. Between the trees themselves, it will be enough to leave a distance of up to half a meter, but between the rows the distance should be much greater - about one or one and a half meters, no less. There is also a second removal of the landing - 1x1 meter, but then again it all depends on the characteristics of the site, on its shape and size. As for the pits for planting, it is best to prepare them right in the fall. Some components are laid there - humus and compost as organic matter, as well as mineral fertilizers, which give all-round strength and support to the trees. It is also necessary to remember that the root system should not be too crowded inside the hole, otherwise it will experience very great difficulties with subsequent development, and the tree simply will not grow as it should, not to mention future fruiting.
One of the key stages in the cultivation of the Arbat columnar apple trees is the formation of the crop. When an inflorescence appears on an annual seedlings, it is recommended to immediately remove these buds from the tree. This way you can preserve the strength of a young tree, which will be used for adaptation and rooting, and not for flowering and possible, but completely useless and tasteless fruiting. Further rationing of the yield is also necessary, since the tree may be too overloaded with fruits, and at the same time these very fruits may not be so tasty and suitable.
You should also pay attention to abundant watering, for this the tree should be watered about twice a week, especially if there is excessive drought, and there is no precipitation at all. Also, watering should be carried out with warm, settled water. If the weather is rather damp, then it is necessary to suspend watering or reduce its volume. Generally,. The gardener should be guided by the weather conditions, since only in this case it is possible to understand how and when to water, in what quantity, and when excessive moisture can only harm the tree and the quality of the fruits that are formed on it. The near-stem circle should be mulched, as mulch can reduce moisture evaporation from the soil, protect it from pests and bacteria, and also keep warm in the upper soil layer. If we talk about those dressings that need to be done regularly, then for this, first of all, organic matter of animal origin is used - chicken manure or cow dung. You can also use horse manure, pig or rabbit manure, which also have a huge amount of mineral and nutrients.
If a gardener grafts an Arbat-type apple tree onto a tall stock, then there is a high risk that all the benefits of the apple tree will be lost. Because of this, the tree will demonstrate a high level of its growth, therefore it will become unnecessarily high, unstable, the trunk may weaken, which, of course, will lead to the fact that the tree may break or die. In addition, it is completely inconvenient to collect fruits from tall columnar trees, as well as inconvenient to care for it, it loses its decorative features and advantages.
Apple tree Arbat: photo of the variety
Arbat apple pruning
Pruning is an important part of tree care.It is carried out in order to strengthen the central trunk of the apple tree, as well as to give the tree a correct and attractive shape. It is also worth noting that for this it is necessary to regularly get rid of the side branches, and if the branch bore fruit, then the next year it is also certainly removed from the tree. The Arbat apple variety begins its fruiting very, very early, in the first year after the tree was planted in open ground, three apples can form on it, and the next year their number doubles. Apples ripen by the end of summer, but this is rather technical ripening. They can be removed a little earlier and stored at home so that they accumulate more sugar in themselves. Then the fruits become even sweeter and, accordingly, tastier.
Apple tree Arbat: cultivation of the variety
If we talk about growing regions, then each region has its own varieties of columnar apple trees. For example, in order for a tree to take root perfectly, and then bear fruit in the northwestern region of Russia, varieties such as The president and Dialogue, as well as Medoc or Ostankino... They can also be used as pollinators for each other. For the Moscow region, ideally, take varieties such as Vasyugan or Moscow necklace, since they have high immunity and resistance to stress, especially when it comes to sudden changes in temperature. In general, if you follow all the planting rules and agrotechnical requirements, you can get a very decorative and fruitful tree, which will delight both in its appearance and in its yield. At the same time, Arbat apples do not have a very good keeping quality, and it is best not to use them for long-distance transportation, since because of this they can lose their internal positive characteristics, taste, useful properties, and lose their presentation.
Apple tree Arbat: video about the variety