Cherry Donetsk coal: description of the variety, photo, cultivation
The article presents the Donetsk coal cherry: description of the variety, photo, guidance on planting, cultivation.
Cherry Donetsk ember: description of the variety and history of selection
Cherry Donetsk coal: photo
Cherry under the interesting name Donetsk Ember is a variety that is considered not just one of the most popular among gardeners, but also one of their favorites. The culture has absorbed all the most positive characteristics - it is considered relatively unpretentious and, at the same time, gives an incredibly rich and very tasty harvest. However, this was the reason why today the Donetsk coal has become so popular in modern gardening. Many gardeners want not only to buy fruits, but also to put some effort into picking berries from their own plot. In this article, we will just tell you in more detail about the history of the breeding of this variety, about its main characteristics and features. We will also touch on the question of how it is necessary to select the conditions for planting seedlings and take care of them in the future in order to get a decent result in terms of planting health and its yield.
The sweet cherry variety Donetsk Ember was bred back in 1956, the originator is the Artyomovsk Experimental Station, located in the Donetsk region. The author is one of the outstanding breeders L.I. Taranenko, who is of great service to the breeding community. The variety appeared as a result of deliberate crossing of two other popular varieties - Valery Chkalov and Drogana yellow, and absorbed all the most positive traits and characteristics from the parent crops. In 1995, the variety was registered in the state register, after which it was officially allowed for cultivation in various territories. The tree turned out to be medium-sized, the crown has a spherical very neat shape, and in general the planting is outwardly quite attractive. The fruits are formed of a dark deep burgundy hue, large, have a sweet taste that goes well with many other berries or fruits, if we talk about blanks. There are several main characteristics that describe this variety best:
- it is a fast growing variety that bears fruit in the fourth or fifth year after the seedling has been sent outdoors;
- self-fertile culture, which requires pollinating varieties. So the gardener should be prepared for the fact that, along with caring for the current crop, he is responsible for caring for pollinating varieties;
- this is a mid-late variety, respectively, it is worth focusing on the middle or end of summer in order to harvest. But this will also largely depend on what area and in what climatic conditions this variety will grow, and how the gardener himself will take care of the planting in order to get the most out of it.
Cherry Donetsk coal: photo
The taste characteristics of cherries Donetsk ember are rated very highly, gardeners emphasize that the berries are incredibly sweet and, at the same time, have a large number of useful and nutritious properties that affect human health and condition. It is recommended to plant the variety in all regions of Russia, except for the most northern ones.This is due to the fact that the tree adapts remarkably in different climatic regions and zones, but still in some areas it is worth taking additional measures to protect the plantings, then they will feel even more comfortable. The tree grows up to 3.5 meters in height if the grower does not use any rootstocks. The crown is dense, spherical, looks quite attractive, although over time, the branches may become a little drooping under the weight of the fruit. The tree is distinguished by the fact that the bark is formed by a light, brown color, the shoots are slightly curved, and the leaves have a shape typical for the cherry culture. But let's talk about this further in a little more detail, so that it would be easier for the gardener to outline the image of this planting and understand how it will look in the future.
The large-fruited nature allows the Donetsk Ember cherry variety to compete with many other plantings, which are considered one of the most popular in the world. The tree is quite tall, reaches a height of five meters, the shoots are straight, thickened, very strong, capable of withstanding large volumes of harvest, which will certainly be formed if the gardener observes all the rules and regulations of agricultural technology. The crown is spherical, has medium thickening, looks quite solemn and attractive, indeed, during flowering, it attracts a lot of attention. The bark itself has a slightly brown color, but over time it can darken, peel off, which indicates that the tree is gradually maturing, and it is worth looking after it more carefully so that it bears fruit for as long as possible and pleases gardeners with its abundant and tasty harvest. The leaves are elliptical, the tips are slightly pointed - in general, this is a fairly typical leaf form, which is found in both cherry and cherry crops, which are close relatives to each other. Flowers can be arranged singly, or there can be bouquets-inflorescences, which consist of three flowers. These are mainly flowers of the female type, which are colored in a light pinkish-cream shade. Basically, during flowering, the planting looks really incredibly attractive and attractive, the plant looks decorative, and the flowers themselves are very fragrant. Therefore, more experienced gardeners choose cherries not only in order to get a harvest, but also in order to decorate their backyard with such a delicate and wonderful tree.
The growing season is about 70 days. The fruits are large, the weight of one berry can be about seven grams, and in shape they are more reminiscent of slightly rounded hearts. The color of both the skin and the pulp is red, the juice also turns out to be red. Taste characteristics are rated quite high, tasters emphasize the sweet taste of the berries and the density of the pulp, which allows the fruit to be stored for a long time and to be transported over long distances. Berries also retain their integrity for a long time when harvested - another advantage for those who do not yet know how to fully realize their harvest. This variety is recommended for growing in temperate climates, mainly in the southern or central parts of Russia. But there are experienced gardeners who say that they managed to grow cherries in less stable areas, and the harvest was just as good in quality.
Cherry variety Donetsk coal: care
Cherry Donetsk coal: photo of the variety
Sweet cherry Donetsk coal requires regular and fairly abundant watering, since this plant is generally not capable of tolerating droughts for a long time - this applies to absolutely any variety and any variety.In order to get juicy and very tasty fruits attractive in their characteristics, it is recommended to carry out abundant monthly watering, focusing on the weather and climatic conditions. This will also help prevent the berries from shedding ahead of time, which means that the gardener will be able to collect the maximum harvest and realize it in accordance with his interests and needs. If precipitation is not expected, then watering should be prescribed a little more often, the soil should not dry out, but it should not become waterlogged either. Otherwise, in the event of drought and waterlogging, the root system will suffer, which means that the entire planting will be in danger of death.
Cherry Donetsk coal does not have a very high level of frost resistance, although there is a tree growing in favorable conditions for itself, then in this case it will be possible to achieve excellent results, and the planting will not freeze in extreme conditions. Moreover, usually frost resistance decreases not entirely in the entire tree, but in flower buds, which are directly responsible for the future formation of the crop and its abundance. If the winter time turned out to be frosty, and if return frosts came in the spring, then this can just lead to the fact that the flower buds freeze and, therefore, the harvest will be lost (or all of it, or some significant part of it).
Fruiting and application of the sweet cherry variety Donetsk ember
Cherry variety Donetsk ember is practically sterile, and without a pollinating plant, the sweet cherry will not be able to bear fruit, or some fruits will set, but the harvest will be completely scarce and not at all plentiful. Pollinators for cherries can be varieties such as Rechitsa or Poetry, which have identical flowering times, which means that pollination will occur at the most suitable moment. The flowering of the sweet cherry variety Donetsk Ember begins in mid-May, and in the second half of July the gardener will be able to enjoy the first harvest of juicy and very tasty fruits. But it should be borne in mind that ripening is non-simultaneous and uneven, which means that the harvest will have to be harvested not in one, but in several approaches at once within ten days.
Fruiting begins around the fourth year after the planting has been sent outdoors. At first, the harvest cannot be called abundant - on average, a gardener collects about ten kilograms of fruits from one tree, no more, but over the years, the yield increases, just as the taste of the fruit increases. As a result, when the tree reaches the peak of its growth and development, then more than twenty kilograms of cherries can be harvested from it. Of course, in many ways, fruiting, its level and quality will mainly depend on how much effort and time the gardener has spent on complying with agrotechnical requirements and caring nuances. But we'll talk about this a little later in this article.
Cherry Donetsk ember belongs to the table variety, and the fruits have a universal purpose, as a rule, after picking the berries, they are excellent for fresh consumption, since they have excellent taste characteristics, and the pulp contains a large amount of various vitamins and trace elements that can have a great effect on the general condition and health of the person who will eat them.
If the gardener has decided to carry out a longer storage of fruits, then it is recommended to send them to freeze, and also use them for making drinks, jams, juices and wine, jams and sauces, marmalade and sweets. In each dish, cherries will perfectly reveal their taste characteristics and, most importantly, they go well with other berries and fruits, emphasizing the taste with their uniqueness.Also, cherries can be used for the preparation of liqueurs and tinctures, which have a positive effect on human health, immunity and metabolism. So cherries are really worthy of attention from gardeners precisely due to their many positive features and traits.
Advantages and disadvantages of cherries Donetsk coal
The variety has both its advantages and some disadvantages, which are worth mentioning. For example, if we talk about the advantages of the variety, then this is mainly an excellent level of yield (it becomes more and more abundant every year, and the quality of the fruits also improves); annual fruiting, which does not depend on external manifestations and factors; the early maturity of the variety, so that already in the middle of summer the gardener can enjoy wonderful and tasty cherry fruits from his own personal plot; delicious and very juicy fruits that have a universal purpose. In general, sweet cherries can be consumed fresh immediately after harvest, or they can be used in the form of preserves and jams, drinks, sauces, wine, juices and compotes, preparations for the winter. But there are also disadvantages, which are also worth mentioning - first of all, it is the self-infertility of the variety. This means that before planting a tree, you should also take care of the selection of pollinating varieties that will have the same flowering time. Then the yield will be even better and more abundant. Of course, experience shows that some part of the fruit can be set without pollinators, but it will make up no more than 20 percent of the total harvest. So, nevertheless, for the sake of the future harvest, you should take care of organizing and caring for pollinators.
Principles of growing sweet cherry Donetsk coal
Cherry Donetsk ember needs a gardener to comply with all the terms and rules of planting. So there are several basic conditions that must be considered if the gardener is guided not only by getting a beautiful flowering plant, but also at the same time getting an excellent tree with a very plentiful and regular harvest. Next, we will just tell you in more detail about the timing of experienced gardeners recommend planting a plant, how to select seedlings, plant them in open ground and give cherries future care.
It should be borne in mind that the sweet cherry variety Donetskiy Ugolok generally has the same requirements in agricultural technology as many other plantings, but one way or another there are some nuances. They must be taken into account first of all. Indeed, according to them, the gardener will be able to determine whether he wants, in principle, to engage in the cultivation of this variety, whether he has enough time to take care of, and whether he will be able to harvest, process a large number of berries. Also, the cultivation of this variety involves caring for pollinating varieties, so you should always keep this aspect in mind and build on your own skills. There are some gardeners who, as such, have no experience in growing cherries, but at the same time they want to learn something new and interesting in order to get excellent results and new knowledge.
Cherry variety Donetsk coal is interesting in that it has a very high nutritional value, because in addition to its taste and interesting aroma, the pulp contains a large amount of vitamins, acids and trace elements that have a great effect on the human body, its general condition - they increase immunity and accelerate metabolism. So cherries are great for organizing dietary or baby food. The variety is highly valued in the industry, since the stone is easily separated from the fruit, which means it simplifies the processes of harvesting. In addition, when the fruits are harvested, their integrity does not suffer in any way, so harvesting can be done quickly enough and painlessly for the plantings themselves.Taste characteristics are assessed by professional tasters at 4.9 points out of five.
Cherry varieties Donetsk ember: planting features
I would like to draw your attention to the fact that the Donetsk ember cherry blossoms quite late, when compared with other cherry varieties - at the very end of May. The fruits can also be harvested relatively late - at the end of July. But here a lot will depend on the type of rootstock, as well as on the climatic conditions in which this planting grows. For example, in the south, fruiting may begin a little earlier, which means that the fruits can be harvested ahead of schedule. But closer to the north, everything changes, the growth and development of planting may become a little slower, the same applies to flowering, fruiting.
By the way, the fruiting of sweet cherries Donetsk ember begins about the fifth year after the seedling was sent to the open ground. From one tree, on average, you can collect from 15 to 20 kilograms. But this can only be achieved taking into account the fact that the gardener will comply with all the rules and norms of planting, agricultural technology and subsequent care. We will talk about this further. Cherry Donetsk coal also perfectly tolerates return frosts, which sometimes occur in spring, and at the same time the tree has the ability to recover on its own in such conditions, without losing its external or yielding characteristics. Fruiting of the tree begins in the fourth or fifth year after the seedling has been sent to the open ground. If the tree was grafted on low-growing rootstocks, then fruiting may occur earlier, but on strong-growing rootstocks, a more abundant harvest can be obtained. In this case, the tree will take up more space in the garden, and fruiting may begin a little later.
If we talk about the volume of the harvest, then usually from an adult tree, which has reached its peak of development, you can collect up to 80 kilograms of berries. But at the same time, it should be borne in mind that such success cannot be achieved if the gardener does not comply with the norms and rules for growing plantings, agricultural technology. Next, we will just dwell on these aspects in more detail, so that it is easier for the gardener to understand what actions are required of him in the cultivation and care of cherries.
The fruits ripen in a very short time, which means that you should try to harvest the crop as soon as possible, otherwise it will crumble. The tree also does not tolerate stagnation of moisture in the soil very well, since moisture has a negative effect on the root system (naturally, moisture is in very large quantities). Therefore, it is recommended to plant the variety on a hill where the groundwater will be deepened. But we will talk further about the conditions for choosing a place for landing, about the nuances of the landing itself and subsequent departure. We will also list those dangerous diseases and describe pests that can be destructive for the cherry tree, and tell you about what preventive measures must be followed for the benefits of planting and for its successful development, growth and fruiting.
Of course, you should pay serious attention to where and in what area the sweet cherry will grow. Experienced gardeners say that for planting seedlings, it is recommended to select more even and elevated areas where enough sunlight will fall. In no case should you plant cherries in low areas, as rather cold fogs can fall there, and groundwater can come too close to the root system. Due to groundwater, the root system can freeze under constant moisture. As a result, putrefactive processes and fungal formations begin, which lead to the fact that the plantings become weaker, and as a result, they generally die.It is best to plant cherries in the southern or eastern parts of the garden plot, which will be perfectly illuminated by the sun, but protected from sudden gusts of wind and drafts.
There are also certain restrictions on which crops can be planted near cherries, and which should not be planted next to a tree, since such a neighborhood can cause great harm to it. For example, it should not be planted next to cherry pears and apple trees, since these crops are able to very actively draw out all useful trace elements and substances from the soil, and cherries will simply have nowhere to receive nourishment for development and growth. Also, it is not recommended to plant conifers next to cherry lindens and birches, as they are quite aggressive with respect to the soil mixture.
Cherry Donetsk coal is generally considered one of the most fastidious crops in this respect - it does not tolerate nightshade and tobacco crops, blackberries, raspberries and gooseberries nearby, since they can have common pests, and the requirements for the soil are always high. As a result, crops begin to simply wear out the soil, and for this reason it will require regular renewal. And given that the above plants do not respond very well to transplantation, as a result, you will have to constantly update the soil in order to prevent the death of the plantings. But if we talk about what kind of neighborhood is suitable for cherries, then we can say that these are cherries and plums, as well as honeysuckle. They wonderfully coexist with cherries, they can even take an active part in pollination, due to which more fruits will be formed and, accordingly, the volume of the harvest will increase.
It is best to choose seedlings that have reached the age of two. The length of the root system should be at least 20-25 centimeters, since this length is already suitable for planting in open ground, and at the same time the plant will feel as comfortable as possible. In general, the roots should be healthy, they should not have visible mechanical or putrefactive damage, and the height of the seedlings should be about one meter, no less. In principle, you should always focus on the external characteristics of the planting material and on how the planting feels, so that the cherry will successfully take root in the future, adapt and show its full maximum growth and development. if the gardener notices any deformations or damage, then it is best for him to abandon the idea of planting this planting on his site, and opt for a healthier and stronger seedling.
Before planting a seedling in open ground, it is recommended to keep it in a solution for several hours, which consists of water and a growth stimulator - Kornevin. Then the root system will be saturated with water and it will be easier to germinate after it is in the open field.
There is a certain algorithm for planting seedlings in open ground, following which even less experienced gardeners will be able to cope with this procedure and get excellent results. Planting should start with the fact that the gardener prepares in advance a suitable site for planting seedlings. The soil is also preliminarily prepared - it should be fertile, saturated with mineral and organic substances, it should not be too acidic and heavy. In order to lower the acidity, the gardener can add either ash or lime to the soil. You can also use dolomite flour for the same purposes, which also normalizes the acidity of the soil and slightly saturates it with the necessary components to make it easier for the seedling to adapt to new conditions. The soil is fed with superphosphate, humus and sulfuric potassium. You can also add a small amount of wood ash, which also has an excellent effect on the general condition of the soil and on future planting material.In general, at the initial stage, you should be very careful about fertilizing, since after that, for two years it will be possible not to add them to the soil at all.
The pit must be prepared in advance - its size is 70x70 centimeters. The depth should also be at least half a meter, but in general, the size of the pit should be guided by the size of the planting materials, because the seedling needs to feel comfortable in the pit, there should not be a small or very cramped space. In the very center of the pit, it is worth filling a little fertile soil, into which sulfur potassium and superphosphate are added in advance, which have an excellent effect on the immunity of the planting material and allow it to take root as soon as possible. A small mound is formed on which the seedling itself is located.
It is recommended that not one, but two gardeners take part in planting, so that one holds the seedling from above, while the second will straighten the root system and gradually pour soil onto it so that no air pockets form. The roots should be carefully and neatly straightened, they should not intertwine with each other, because this can negatively affect the general state of the planting, its health, longevity, increased growth and development. the pit is filled with water (it must be settled beforehand, at room temperature). In no case should you use running cold water, as it can cause a shock reaction from the seedling.
The root collar is gradually closed, leaving it at the level of the soil, slightly open. The soil should be slightly compacted, as air pockets should not be allowed to form - pathogenic bacteria can begin to develop in them. Around the seedling, it is worth pouring a mulching layer, which consists of peat or dry grass. Mulch performs several main functions: thanks to it, the trunk circle will be protected from attacks from pests, moisture will evaporate more slowly, and all the necessary heat will leave the soil even more slowly. So it's not worth saving your time on filling mulch. Thanks to it, weeds or third-party grasses will also not grow, which means that the trunk space will be clean and tidy.
If this is not a single, but a group planting of cherry trees, then the distance between them should be at least three meters, and about four meters should be left between the rows. Then the cherries will not interfere with each other to grow and develop correctly, they will not shade each other, and it will be much easier for the gardener himself to take care of the plantings, since he will have a place to take care of and to harvest. In order to get the maximum yield from a cherry tree, pollinators should be planted nearby. Pollination will occur due to gusts of wind and pollinating insects. In this case, the gardener will have more responsibilities for caring for the plantings, but the harvest will not be long in coming. Pollinator caring is usually an identical agricultural procedure, so that the gardener as a whole may not worry too much and combine caring activities.
Protection from pests and diseases
Sweet cherry is quite resistant to moniliosis and coccomycosis - perhaps the most dangerous fungal diseases that can affect cherry and sweet cherry crops. But still, the gardener must provide additional support to the plantings so that they do not definitely get infected with dangerous infections. The same can be said about pests that periodically attack plantings - if the gardener monitors them and provides the necessary support, then the result can be an excellent planting that will grow well even in not the most favorable conditions.In general, it is possible to carry out various preventive treatments of the plantings to make it easier to regulate their general condition and to ensure that the pests do not even begin to spread over the plantings.
Of course, I would like to devote a separate part of the article to what diseases and pests can be dangerous for planting, and what methods exist to combat and prevent these diseases and harmful attacks. It is very important to comply with all the conditions and rules, since this increases the chances not only of saving the plant, but also of strengthening its immune system, strengthening stress resistance in very unstable conditions and conditions. Next, we will describe some of the dangerous manifestations, so that it would be easier for any gardener, especially a beginner, to identify them and start a timely fight.
Hole spotting - manifests itself in the fact that foreign spots are gradually formed on the leaves, painted in a brown or reddish-brick shade. Then holes appear in place of the spots. The shoots begin to crack, gum seeps out of them, which also suggests that some negative changes are taking place with the planting, and measures must be taken immediately to combat the hole spot. Usually all diseased shoots are immediately cut from the tree and burned outside the infield. The near-trunk circle is carefully dug, it, the trunk and the tree must be sprayed entirely with a 3% Bordeaux mixture solution. If necessary, this procedure can be repeated, but it is worth focusing on the general state of the planting.
Moniliosis (in other words, this disease is called gray rot) - usually the disease is formed at very high air humidity, because it is this microclimate that is considered very favorable for the development of various fungal diseases. Spots also begin to form on the leaves, which gradually affect the fruits themselves. To get rid of moniliosis, it is necessary to cut off all damaged branches with the capture of healthy parts that may have already been infected, but the infection has not yet manifested itself. The tree should be sprayed with special preparations belonging to the fungicidal group - these are Azocene, Topsin, Horus, which are sold in specialized stores for gardeners, as well as in nurseries where the seedlings themselves are purchased.
Of the pests, the so-called cherry slimy sawfly is very dangerous - these are pests in the form of larvae, which in their external characteristics more resemble typical slugs. They actively feed on leaves, leaving bare skeletons in their place. In order to carry out preventive wood treatment, you can use such a method as a thorough digging of the trunk circle. But the larva, if they have already appeared, can be destroyed if the plant is sprayed with drugs such as Aktara and Confidor. Experienced gardeners say that folk remedies are no less effective in this case - for example, a tincture based on chamomile or ash, which is on any site.
The cherry weevil (trubovert) is a beetle that has a very long proboscis. Basically, he survives the winter in the soil, but in the spring he moves to the tree, begins to gnaw through the branches and leaves, then moves to the formed fruits. As a result, cherries are almost massively crumbled, which means that the entire harvest is lost as well. To get rid of the cherry weevil, it is worth digging up the soil with the onset of autumn, setting traps. You can also treat the planting and soil with Inta-vir or Fufanon, which are considered inexpensive and, at the same time, very effective drugs in the fight against garden pests.
There is also such a pest as black aphid. These are small, small bugs that mainly settle on the lower part of the leaves, causing them to deform, dry out and massively shatter.In order to strike at aphids, it is necessary to destroy all ants in the area. You can also use some folk recipes. For example, aphids react very negatively to pungent odors, which means, ideally, it is worth treating plantings with the help of tinctures on garlic or tobacco, ammonia. You can also dust the trees with tobacco dust. But if we talk about professional tools, then this is a drug called Fitoverm, which can be purchased at any gardening store or in nurseries where the seedlings themselves are sold.
In conclusion, I would like to say that the Donetsk ember cherry is a magnificent planting that really deserves attention from gardeners. Planting does not cause any difficulties, but the result can exceed all even the most daring expectations. With all this, cherries have a high level of immunity and stress resistance, they are not afraid of diseases and pests.
Cherry Donetsk ember: video about the variety